Rule of Law
Saturday، 14 May 2016 - 12:00 AM
The rule of law shall be the basis of governing in the State.
The State shall be governed by Law. The independence, immunity and impartiality of the judiciary are essential guarantees for the protection of rights and freedoms.
Penalties are personal. There shall be no crime or punishment except pursuant to a law, and a penalty may only be inflicted by a court judgment. Penalty shall only be imposed for acts committed after the effective date of the law imposing it.
The accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty in a fair legal trial in which the right to defend himself is guaranteed.
The law shall regulate the appeal of judgments passed on felonies.
The State shall provide protection to victims, witnesses, accused and informants as necessary and in accordance with the Law.
Litigation is a right that is safeguarded and an inalienable right for all. The State shall guarantee the accessibility of judicature for litigants and rapid adjudication on cases. It is prohibited to immunize any administrative act or decision from judicial review. No person may be tried except before the ordinary judge. Exceptional courts are prohibited.
The right of defense either in person or by proxy is guaranteed. The independence of the legal profession and the protection of its rights is a guarantee for the right of defense.
The law shall provide all means by which those who are financially unable can resort to justice and defend their rights.
Any violation of personal freedom or the sanctity of the private life of citizens, or any other public rights and freedoms which are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Law is a crime. The criminal and civil lawsuit arising of such crime shall not abate by prescription. The affected party shall have the right to bring a direct criminal action.
The State shall guarantee fair compensation for the victims of such violations. The National Council for Human Rights may file a complaint with the Public Prosecution of any violation of these rights, and it may intervene in the civil lawsuit in favor of the affected party at its request. All of the foregoing is to be applied in the manner set forth by Law.
Court judgments shall be issued and enforced in the name of the People. The State shall guarantee the means of the enforcement thereof as regulated by Law. Refraining from or delay in the enforcement of such judgments by the competent public servants is a crime punishable by Law. In such a case, the party in favor of whom the judgment is passed shall have the right to bring a direct criminal action before the competent court. The Public Prosecution shall, at the request of the party in favor of whom the judgment is passed, initiate criminal action against the public servant refraining from executing the judgment or interrupting such execution.