Mohammed Hosni Mubarak is the fourth President of Egypt as of October 14th, 1981 till February 11th, 2011. As Egypt's President, he played a supportive role for peace in the Arab world. He was known for his supportive stance for the Palestinian-Israeli peace negotiations. He stepped down from power after the outbreak of the 25th of January Revolution on February 11th, 2011.
He joined the Egyptian Military Academy, where he received a Bachelor's degree in Military Sciences in February, 1949 and graduated as a Second Lieutenant. Then, he became an officer in the Infantry. He joined the Air Force Academy and received a Bachelor's degree in Aviation Sciences on March 12th, 1950.
He was promoted in the military posts and became a lecturer in the Air Force Academy, then the Academy Assistant Chief of Staff , then the Academy Chief of Staff and Squadron Commander at the same time till 1959.
In 1964, he received post-graduate studies in the Frunze Military Academy in the Soviet Union. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's Commander. He was promoted to be Brigadier General on June 22nd, 1969. He became the Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Air Force and then the Air Force Commander in April 1972.In the same year, he was appointed as Deputy Minister of War.
During the October War in 1973, he led the Egyptian Air Force. In February 1974, Mubarak was promoted to be Lieutenant General.
Mubarak was appointed by former president Mohammed Anwar Al-Sadat in April 1975 as Vice President of Egypt from 1975-1981.
Following the assassination of president Sadat in October, 1981 during the annual military parade, Mohammed Hosni Mubarak became Egypt's president in a public referendum after the People's Assembly nominated him for the post. Then he was re-elected for new presidential terms in 1987, 1993 and 1999.
Mubarak was re-elected for a new presidential term in 2005 in the first multi-candidate elections that Egypt witnesses after the constitutional amendment which made choosing the president by direct secret balloting.
In February 2011, Mubarak stepped down and entrusted the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to take over the duties of the president after the January 25th Revolution in 2011 which called for toppling the regime.
Mubarak completed the peace process that former president Anwar Al-Sadat began with Israel at Camp David. The peace process between Egypt and Israel continued till most of Sinai has been restored from the Israeli control. Then, Egypt sought the help of international arbitration to restore Taba from the Israeli occupation till Egypt restored it in 1989.
His term in office has witnessed the establishment of many projects such as the Underground in Cairo and Giza, Al-Salam Lake in Sinai, Toshki and East of Owainat and the projects of youths housing.
Mubarak's term of office witnessed the establishment of opposition movements; most prominent of which were "Kefaya" and "6th of April" movements. These movements called for people in the governorates to protest against deteriorating conditions in Egypt; namely the high poverty rate, low living standards of the citizens, power monopoly, political short-sightedness and police abuse. These protests and calls for protesting succeeded in mobilizing a large number of the Egyptian people to take to the streets on 25 January, 2011 that turned out to be a massive popular revolution.
Mubarak was presented to the trial before the Criminal Court on 3/8/2011.