23 June 2024 08:34 PM

Modern Era

Monday، 17 June 2013 12:00 AM

The genesis of Egypt's modern history spans with the emergence of Muhammad Ali's rule in the year 1805, and his launch of Egypt's modernization project that involved building a new army and suggesting a new map for Egypt.

Muhammad Ali was born in 1769 in Kavala in northern Greece.  He was part of the Ottoman army and in the year 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation.

The French withdrawal left governance in question in the Ottoman province. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, and Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks over power.

During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between the year 1801 and 1805, Muhammad Ali had carefully acted to gain the support of the general public. By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power.
Ahmad Khurshid Pasha, step down and Muhammad Ali be installed as the new Wāli in 1805. After he became Wāli he exiled Makram because Makram discovered Muhammad Ali's intentions to seize power. On March 1, 1811, Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration held at the Cairo Citadel in honor of his son, Tusun, who was being appointed to lead a military expedition into Arabia. When the Mamluks arrived, they were trapped and killed.
Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power. He reorganized the administrative system in Egypt, introduced a wide variety of new economic measures, introduced elements of western technology, and built up a powerful army.

Reigning members of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1805–1952)
Wālis, self-declared as Khedives (1805–1867)
Muhammad Ali (9 July 1805 – 1 September 1848)
Ibrahim (reigned as Wāli briefly during his father's incapacity) (1 September 1848 – 10 November 1848)
Abbas I (10 November 1848 – 13 July 1854)
Sa‘id I (14 July 1854 – 18 January 1863)
Ismai'l I (19 January 1863 – 26 June 1867)
Khedives (1867–1914)
Ismai'l I (8 June 1867 – 26 June 1879)
Tewfik I (26 June 1879 – 7 January 1892)
Abbas II (8 January 1892 – 19 December 1914)
Sultans (1914–1922)
Hussein Kamel (19 December 1914 – 9 October 1917)
Fuad I (9 October 1917 – 16 March 1922)
Kings (1922–1952)
Fuad I (16 March 1922 – 28 April 1936)
Farouk I (28 April 1936 – 26 July 1952)
Fuad II (26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953)
The Orabi Revolution was a nationalist uprising in Egypt during the year 1879-1882 against the European influence in the country. It was led by and named after Colonel Ahmed Orabi.
From 1919, there were mass demonstrations that became uprisings. This is known in Egypt as the 1919 Revolution.
In deference to the growing nationalism and at the suggestion of the High Commissioner, Lord Allenby, the UK unilaterally declared Egyptian independence on 28 February 1922, abolishing the protectorate and establishing an independent Kingdom of Egypt.

1952 Revolution
The Egyptian Revolution of 1952, also known as the 23 July Revolution, began on 23 July 1952, with a military coup d'état by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Farouk.

Naguib's rule
Muhammad Naguib was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic in 1953 to 14 November 1954.
He died in 1984 and he had a military funeral.

Nasser's rule
Nasser era refers to the period of Egyptian history spanning from the 1952 Revolution, through the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser to his death in 1970. Nasser's rule heralded a new period of modernization, and socialist reform in Egypt and advocacy of pan-Arab nationalism, including a short-lived union with Syria. His prestige in Egypt and the Arab world soared with the nationalization of the Suez Canal.
The era has been called a time when Arab pride was re-established, access to housing, education, health services, and nourishment made possible to Egyptians; agrarian reform, major modernization projects such as Helwan and the High Dam built.
On 5 June, Israeli armed forces dealt a crushing blow to Egypt. Seventeen Egyptian airfields were attacked, and most of the Egyptian air force destroyed on the ground leading to the Israeli occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.
Egypt's defeat in the 1967 War compelled Nasser to resign on 9 June; however, he relented following massive popular demonstrations of support.
In 1968 efforts were commenced to regain lost territory in what became known as the War of Attrition. He died on 28 September 1970.

Sadat's rule
Sadat era refers to the presidency of Anwar Sadat, the eleven-year period of Egyptian history spanning from the death of president Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1970, through Sadat's assassination on October 6, 1981.
The October War of 1973 launched against Israel began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights respectively.
For Sadat the war was seen as a victory, as the initial Egyptian successes restored Egyptian pride and led to peace talks with the Israelis that eventually led to Egypt regaining the entire Sinai Peninsula in exchange for a peace agreement.
Sadat created a fresh opening for progress by his dramatic visit to Jerusalem in November 1977. This led to the invitation from President Jimmy Carter of the United States to President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to enter trilateral negotiations at Camp David.
The outcome was the historic Camp David accords, signed by Egypt and Israel and witnessed by the US on 17 September 1978. The accords led to the 26 March 1979, signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, by which Egypt regained control of the Sinai in May 1982.

Mubarak rule
Mubarak era refers to the 29 year long presidency of Hosni Mubarak, the period of Egyptian history spanning from the October 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat through February 2011, when Mubarak was overthrown by a revolution.
From 1991, Mubarak undertook an ambitious domestic economic reform program to reduce the size of the public sector and expand the role of the private sector.
During Mubarak's era, Egypt saw little progress on political reform. Political corruption in the Mubarak administration rose dramatically.

2011 Revolution
Beginning on 25 January 2011, a series of street demonstrations, and protests have taken place in Egypt. The demonstrations were reported to have started over police brutality, state of emergency laws, unemployment, desire to raise the minimum wage, lack of housing, food inflation, corruption, lack of freedom of speech, and poor living conditions. The protests' main goal was to oust Mubarak's regime. On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.

Transition period
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) on Friday, February 11, 2011, shortly after the announcement of Mubarak's resignation, stated that the Council is not a substitute for the legitimacy that satisfies the people.
Despite the turbulence of the transitional period in Egypt, polls have shown that the SCAF has enjoyed wide legitimacy from the Egyptian people and general confidence in their ability to provide free elections.
On 24 June 2012, Egypt's Election Commission announced that Mohamed Morsi had won the run-off.
Morsi's rule
Mohamed Morsi is the 1st elected civilian President, having assumed office on 30 June 2012.

30 June Revolution 2013
The Egyptian people launched on June 30, 2013 a new revolution to correct the path of revolution of January 25, 2011 to restore the nation, overcome the Brotherhood's monopoly of political life and their attempts to destroy the foundations of modern State and exposing Egypt to external and internal dangers.

"Rebel" opposition movement called for demonstrations against president Morsi after one year of assuming power; calling for early presidential elections, as a result of gross mistakes committed by his regime.

The Armed Forces couldn’t turn a deaf ear to public appeal. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces Abdel Fattah El Sisi presented a roadmap, which has been welcomed by Al-Azhar, the Church and representatives of the political and partisan and popular powers in Egypt.

The roadmap included the following:
* Suspending the constitution temporarily.
* The chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court is sworn     in before the General Assembly of the Court
* The chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court takes         over as interim president during a transitional period until the     election of a new president.
* Form a national government that is enjoying all the powers to     manage that transitional phase.
* Introduce a media code that ensures the freedom of the             media and achieves credibility and uphold the higher interests    of the homeland.

The Egyptian people took to the street again on July 26, 2013 to announce full support for the roadmap, backing efforts of the Armed Forces and the Interior Ministry in the fight against terrorism that was committed by the Muslim Brotherhood group and other affiliated organizations that are calling their supporters abroad to interfere in the Egyptian affairs.

2014 Constitution

The 2014 constitution is one of the most important Egyptian constitutions. It was outlined the June 30 revolution against the rule of the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood. The Constitution of 2014 was put to referendum on 14-15 January 2014 where 98.1% voted in its favor, while 1.9%, refused it.

The presidential election in 2014
The Presidential Election Commission announced on Tuesday, 3/6/2014 that Abdel Fattah al-Sisi has won the presidential election, which was free and fair garnering 96.91 per cent of the valid votes and took office on June 8, 2014.

The House of Representatives in 2015
The House of Representatives in 2015 is the last stage of the road map, which was announced after the revolution on June 30, 2013 against the rule of the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood, where the first session of the House of Representatives was held on January 10, 2016. It includes 596 members, of which 568 members are elected, in addition to 28 members appointed by the president.

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