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Political Relations

Thursday، 30 March 2017 12:57 PM

The Egyptian-US relations have witnessed great development since World War II. The relation has gone through several stages. Before July 23, 1952 revolution, Egypt hosted, on November 22, 1943, “1st Cairo conference” held by US President Franklin Roosevelt with the participation of British Leader Winston Churchill and Chinese leader Chiang Kechek. On November 27, 1943, US President Franklin Roosevelt held the 2nd Cairo conference with the participation of British Leader Winston Churchill and Turkish President Inonu. In February 1945, US President Franklin Roosevelt held a meeting on a warship in the Suez Canal with Saudi King Abdulaziz Al-Saud. During the visit, Roosevelt held his 1st meeting with King Farouk of Egypt. He also held a meeting in Alexandria with the Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie.

During the era of Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Egyptian-US relations were characterized by tension and conflict. The peak of this tension was in 1967 resulting in cutting the diplomatic relations between the two countries. However, there were moments of cooperation as appeared in the role played by the United States in the Egyptian-British invasion on the Suez war in 1956. In 1953, US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles visited Egypt. In 1956, disputes between Egypt and the US emerged over financing the High Dam project, thus, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal to finance the project. In 1959, the United States and Egypt signed an agreement for three years under which Egypt bought the US wheat in Egyptian pounds. Washington, also, has provided three hundred scholarships for Egyptian students.

In March 1974, relations between Egypt and the United States were resumed, reaching its peak after the signing of the Camp David Accords and the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. In June 1974, US President Richard Nixon visited Cairo in the first official visit by a US president to discuss the situation in the Middle East and the bilateral relations. US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visited Egypt several times to discuss developments in the Middle East crisis.

In 2001, the Egyptian-US relations have become little tense. After eight years of tension, US President Obama visited Cairo on 4/6/2009 heading a US delegation where he delivered a famous speech from Cairo University to the Islamic world. Obama's speech tackled nine points: violence and militancy, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Palestinian issue, the Iranian nuclear program, issues of democracy, religious pluralism, women's rights and economic development.

Washington announced its support to January 25th Revolution. The official US institutions expressed its reservation in the beginning of the June 30th Revolution. On 5/7/2013, the US Congress stance was different from the White House; the House Foreign Affairs Committee issued a statement, saying that the Muslim Brotherhood failed to understand democracy. The statement demanded the Army and the transitional government to fulfill their intention of democratic transition and to allow the participation of a wide range of people in the process of writing the constitution. The statement also called on all political forces in Egypt to renounce violence. The US administration's stance began after that to shift gradually toward accepting the new situation in Egypt.

In June 2014, US President Barack Obama phoned President Abdel Fattah El Sisi to congratulate him for being sworn in as Egypt's new president for the coming four years. During the phone call, Obama expressed the US commitment to work with Egypt to promote common interests and the strategic partnership between the two countries. Obama emphasized US support for the political, economic and social aspirations of the Egyptian people. In September 2014, on the sidelines of the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, President Sisi met with US President Obama and held a meeting to discuss a number of issues of mutual concern. The meeting was held at the request of the American side to discuss ways of joint cooperation and discuss the Middle East issues and ways of combating terrorism.

Mutual Visits

20/9/2019: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi arrived in New York to participate in the 74th session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA 74). President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met on 23/9/2019 US President Donald Trump. Sisi said that meetings with Trump reflect significant understanding between the two countries, citing that this was his second meeting with the US leader in two months. Trump, for his turn, said that his administration seeks to boost cooperation, coordination and strategic consultation with Cairo in the coming period in light of Egypt's pivotal role in the Middle East. Trump hailed Egypt's successful counter-terror efforts, asserting that Egypt is a key partner in the fight against terrorism. President Sisi took part in the Climate Action Summit on the fringe of the United Nations General Assembly meetings. During the summit, the president reviewed the vision of Egypt, Africa and developing nations vis-a-vis climate change which poses grave threat to the whole world.

On 30/3/2019: Environment Minister Yasmin Fouad visited USA to participate in the United Nations High-Level Meeting on Climate and Sustainable Development in New York.

On 26/3/2019: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry met US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo. The two sides discussed ways to support and strengthen relations between the two countries in various aspects, including the US economic and military aid program.

On 16/3/2019: Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Tariq Al-Mulla paid a visit to America and was received by Victoria Coates, US President's Assistant for Middle East Affairs.

On 15/1/2019: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry paid a visit to New York to participate in the handover of the presidency of the Group of 77 and China from Egypt to Palestine.

On 10/1/2019: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo paid a visit to Egypt and was received by President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. The two sides discussed enhancing bilateral relations cooperation frameworks and deepening strategic partnership relations.

On: 6/4/2017: Chairman of the Suez Canal Authority Mohab Mamish received a delegation from the US National War College, accompanied by the US naval attaché, at the authority headquarters in Ismailia.

On 1/4/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi arrived in Washington on an official visit to the US at an invitation by US President Donald Trump. The visit comes as part of the two countries' keenness on promoting strategic relations. El Sisi met Trump, Egyptian community in Washington, CEO of General Electric Company, speaker of US House of Representatives, US National Security Adviser and US Secretary of State.

On 27/2/2017: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry held a meeting with US State Secretary Rex Tillerson in Washington. The meeting focused on the deeply-rooted strategic relations binding Egypt and the US over decades.

On 26/2/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Commander of US Central Command Joseph L. Votel. President Sisi hailed as "strategic and special" military relations with Washington. Sisi called for boosting international coordination to reach a joint and integrated strategy to face challenges, atop of which terrorism, Presidential Spokesman Alaa Youssef said.

On 19/2/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received a delegation of US and Jewish organizations.

On 11/2/2017: Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry held a meeting with a delegation from the US Congress chaired by Congressman Dana Rohrabacher, the founder of Congressional Friends of Egypt Caucus.

On 2/2/2017: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received a delegation from the Middle East Institute of Washington, D.C. led by its President Wendy Chamberlin and comprising a number of former US ambassadors to Egypt, including Frank Wisner.

On 14/1/2017: Assistant Foreign Minister of Arab Affairs Tarek el Qouni received US Special Envoy to Libya Jonathan Winer. In a press released, the Foreign Ministry said the talks tackled the latest developments in Libya and means of countering terror in the Arab states. Qouni stressed that Egypt is not siding with any party of the Libyan political process in order to reach an all-out settlement to the Libyan crisis. He referred to the meetings which Egypt hosted recently among Libyan parties to push forward the Libyan political process. He stressed that Egypt would proceed with efforts to settle the Libyan crisis. Winer said Egypt and the US share almost identical views with regard to countering terror in Libya in view of its negative repercussions on the region.

On 23/12/2016: US President-elect Donald Trump phoned President Abdel Fattah El Sisi where they reviewed the future of Egyptian-US relations after the new US administration takes the helm officially next month. The two leaders said they are looking forward to boosting bilateral cooperation in various domains for the best interest of both nations. The talks also tackled regional developments which could lead to an escalation of international challenges with regard to stability, peace and security; a matter that necessitates fostering bilateral cooperation in the face of such challenges.

On 9/11/2016: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi phoned Donald Trump to congratulate him on winning the US presidential elections and invited him to visit Egypt. Sisi wished Trump success in his mission as the new US president. President Sisi said he is looking forward to enhancing Egyptian-US cooperation at all levels, voicing hope that Trump's presidential term would be crowned with realizing peace, stability and development in the Middle East in view of the grave challenges besetting it.

On 23/1/2016: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met Head of US Central Command General Lloyd James Austin. The meeting dealt with efforts for fighting terrorism. Sisi and Austin also discussed the latest developments in the Middle East, as well as the Egyptian-US military cooperation.

On 17/1/2016: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met US Central Intelligence Director John Brennan. During the meeting, Brennan hailed strategic relations binding Egypt and the US and underlined the importance of boosting bilateral relations in the various spheres. Brennan affirmed that Egypt is an important partner for his country, adding that the US seeks to get acquainted with Egypt's viewpoint toward cooperation on several regional issues of mutual interest, topped by combating terrorism and confronting terrorist groups in the Middle East.

On 22/11/2015: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met members of the US Congress. Sisi held two separate meetings with the Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the US Senate and then with the Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats Dana Rohrabacher and Republican Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard.

On 5/11/2015: Armed Forces Chief of Staff Lt. General Mahmoud Hegazy met US Commander of Joint Special Operations Command Lieutenant General Raymond Thomas along with his accompanying delegation. The meeting took up a host of files and issues of mutual interest regarding military cooperation and training along with exchanging expertise between the Armed Forces in the two countries.

On 7/10/2015: Pope Tawadros II, Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of Saint Mark Episcopate, visited USA at the head of a delegation in a 3-week pastoral visit.

On 24/9/2015: President Abdel Fattah El Sisi visited USA to attend the 70th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) convenes at UN New York HQ. President Sisi delivered Egypt's speech at the 70th UNGA session. He talked about several current issues at the local, regional and international arenas. The President, also, tackled in his speech means of benefiting from the energy of young people and investing them in pushing up the development process along with means of fighting extremism and pooling all international efforts to uproot it. President Sisi also met a number of Arab and foreign presidents, ministers and officials.

 Palestinian problem:

On 28/1/2020:  Egypt expressed appreciation of continuing US efforts to realize a fair and comprehensive peaceful settlement for the Palestinian problem to contribute to consolidating Middle East security and stability and ending the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

In comment on US President Donald Trump’s announcement of the details of his administration's much-awaited Middle East peace plan, Egypt on Tuesday 28/1/2020 asserted that the plan should be viewed in the light of the importance of reaching a settlement that restores to the Palestinian people their full legitimate rights through the establishment of their independent and sovereign state on the occupied Palestinian lands in line with international legitimacy resolutions.

Egypt urged the parties concerned to make a careful study of the US peace plan and consider all its details and called for opening communication channels to resume US-sponsored peace negotiations to present the views of both the Palestinian and Israeli sides towards the plan so as to reach a deal that fulfills the aspirations and hopes of the Palestinian and Israeli peoples for reaching an overall, fair peace agreement that leads to the setting up of an independent Palestinian state.

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