17 May 2022 08:37 PM

Transport and Communications

Monday، 20 July 2009 12:00 AM

Egypt has been characterized since ancient times by its unique geographical position and the construction of ships, which play an important role in the movement of transport and trade.

The Egyptian people were also a pioneer in the paving of roads, and the state has always been concerned of river transport, as the Nile is par excellence a favorable way to transport and trade.

Egypt has become a fabulous transition to world trade between the East and the West through the Suez Canal, the most important navigation waterway in the world.

Egypt stands at the head of the States concerned to air transport by the creation of the first airline in 1932.

Transportation services are related to the concept of comprehensive development of the state, as an axis very important to the infrastructure of the State through which the requirements of economic and urban development of production and consumption environments find their full satisfaction.

Transport sectors were able to realize many achievements in the renewal, development and expansion of the metro, railways, roads and bridges, seaports, river transportation and land and dry ports .

Main statistical indices: 

        Total length of the road network "paved or land routes", reached 163,000 kilometers, including 155,000 kilometers of paved roads, a rate of 95.2%, and 8,000 km of land routes at a rate of 4.8%.

        Total lengths of all paved roads in the governorates have achieved 25 km, of which 155km belong to the authority of the bridges at a rate of 15.9%, 123,000 kilometers of roads belonging to the departments at a rate of 79.3%, and 7,000 km belonging to the New Urban Communities Authority at a rate of 4.7%.

        Bridges built at the Republic have reached a total of 2,370 bridges, 1,530 bridges owned by the General Authority for Roads and Bridges at a rate of 64.4%, 208 bridges owned by the roads departments governorates at a rate of 8.8%, 40 bridges belonging to the New Urban Communities Authority, a rate of 1.7%, 586 bridges owned by the National Authority of Egypt Railway at a rate of 24.7%, and 6 bridges owned by the Egyptian company for the management and operation of the Metro at a rate of 0.2%.

     Number of tunnels have also reached the 82, including 28 tunnels belonging to the Metro at a rate of 34.1, and 54 tunnels belonging to roads departments at a rate of 65.9%.


First: The Metro

Egypt is the first country in Africa and the Middle East to run the subway which is a civilizational project that link the three governorates (Cairo - Giza - Qalioubéya).There are currently three subway lines, namely: -

The first line, passing through 35 stations, stretching from the new station to that of El Marg Helwan, south of Cairo, over a length of 44.3 km.This first line was performed in three phases:

The first phase: Ramses - Helwan, 29 kilometers long, inaugurated in 1987.

The second phase: Ramses - El Marg, 14 km long, inaugurated in 1989.

The third phase: the completion of the northern part of the first line, 1.3 km long, which was inaugurated in 1999.

The second line, passing through 20 stations, stretching from Shubra El Khema resort in Qalioubéya governorate to al-Munib in Giza, over a length of 21.6 km.This line, running from 1996, is in correspondence with the first line with two stations (Shohada'a (Martyrs) and Sadat).

The third line: including several stages, namely:

The first phase: extends from Attaba to Abbasseya at a length of 4.3 km. It consists of 5 underground stations (Attaba - Asha'areya Bab - Al Guiseh - Abdo Pasha - Abbasseya) and four ventilation stations.  It works in correspondence with the second line at the Attaba station. Implementation of this phase started on 7/7/2007 with a total cost of LE 4.2 billion, this step was inaugurated on February 21, 2012.

The second phase: extends up to Abbasseya-Haroun station over a length of 7.7 km with a total cost of LE 4.3 billion. It is made up of four underground stations (Cairo Fair - The stadium - The School Girls - Al Ahram).This phase was implemented on 1/7/2009 and inaugurated on 07/05/2014. The other two stages, the third and fourth were implemented in early 2015.

The fourth line, scheduled to be implemented in early 2016, extends from the western ring road in Al Qahira Al Gadida (New Cairo) over a length of 42 km.


During 2014, several significant achievements have been made, namely:

-                 The opening of the second stage of the third metro line, assimilative capacity of 700 thousand passengers / day.

-                 The evolution of four trains in the evolution project of 17 trains on the first line of the metro at a total cost of LE 90 million.

-                 The launch of 4 new trains on the second line of the metro (Shoubra / Munib) to raise its assimilative capacity at a cost of LE 464 million.

-                 Completion of the project of the development of the underground station (Hada'k Al Maadi), for the creation of a top station able to absorb the excess passengers at a cost of LE 42 million.

-                 The creation of the mall at Manshiet Al Sadr station on the first line of the subway at a cost of LE 30 million.


Second: Railways

The Egyptian Railways are among the oldest in the world. They rank first in Africa and the Middle East and the second largest after those of England. The first Egyptian railway between Cairo / Alexandria was established in 1853 and extends over a length of 209 km. The State then committed to connect all the governorates of the Republic network of railways which become currently the main means of transport for citizens and goods in and out of the Republic as a whole.

The total length of railway network reached 9,600 kilometers, between single and double lines. It is served by 705 stations (main - central - medium), about 1200 gates, 748 bridges, 137 tunnels in addition to pedestrians and car tunnels under the subway stations. Rail lines extend over 23 governorates in the Republic. They carry about 540 million passengers / year through 400,000 trains / year of travel.

In 2014, the following achievements have been made: the punctuality of the operating times, optimal use of labor in the workshops, the development of the fleet of mobile units, changing gates and stations , renovation of railways and restoring the activity of the transport of containers from the ports of Sokhna and Al Adabéya to the ports of Dekhela and Alexandria.


Third: Roads and Bridges

A - Roads:

The state has a great interest in the support and development of motorways and main roads in all corners of the country. On 30/6/2013   total length of paved roads was estimated at 145.947 kilometers and the land routes to 8700 km. In 2014, the following achievements have been made  :

Ø    The completion of the second stage of the northern arc of the regional ring road (Al Asher / Belbis), 27 km long, at a cost of LE 550 million.

Ø    The creation of the Toshka / Argin road, 110 km long, as new axis to the west of the Nile between Egypt and Sudan at a cost of LE 185 million.

Ø    The establishment of bridges (Barabekh) on the axes of the Al Arish valley under the protection works against floods to the total cost of LE 150 million.

Ø    The duality of Ismailia road-Al Qassassin / Abbasseya (The second phase of Al Qassassin to Abbasseya) 25 km long, including the creation of a higher bridge at Abbasseya with a total cost of LE 70 million.

Ø    The creation of Baris / Darb Al Arba'in road in of Al Wadi Al Gédid (New Valley) governorate, 45 km long (over a distance of 225 km to 270 km), at a cost of LE 23 million.

Ø    Improving the performance of Ra's Hadraba / Halayib road, 29 km long, in the state plan for developing the Triangle Region (Shalatine / Abu Ramad / Halayib) at a cost of LE 29 million.

Ø    Paving Al Fayoum / Ibshway / Mont Saad road, 31 km long, at a cost of LE 30 million

Ø    Paving Al Nasr Canal road, 83 km long, at a cost of LE 28 million.

Ø    Paving internal roads in the city of Qoseir at a length of 20 km long and at a cost of LE 10 million.

Ø    Paving the Mahal Anjaq / Nojeir / Dekerness road, 12 km long, at a cost of LE 15 million.

Ø    The duality of Al Sanbelawin / Kafr Saqr road, 19 km long, at a cost of LE 30 million.

Ø    The duality of Safaga / Qena road (the first stage), 20 km long, at a cost of LE 106 million.

The General Authority for Roads and Bridges began (in February 2015) the new paving system, reinforced concrete of the perimeter road "Cairo - Suez" in order to take loads that reach an average of 60 tons without be assigned to more than 20 years. This experience, first in Egypt, will realize a significant change in the field of roads and bridges and will be extended gradually in the future.

o  The Organization of Engineering of the Armed Forces has evolved and expanded the Cairo – Suez route creating three lanes in each direction over a distance of 34 km long.

o  The development of Cairo / Ismailia desert road at a distance of 30 km long from the city of Al Salam to the city of the 10th of Ramadan.

o  The creation of Al Farik Saad Al Shazly axis at the Hykstep and the west arc of the regional ring road extending from the western Cairo / Assiut route to the Cairo / Alexandria  desert road.

o  26 projects were implemented within the framework of the national road project at a cost of LE 17 billion. These projects are 1109 km long with a total length of 3400 km and pass through 14 governorates.

o  The duality of the desert road Assiut / Sohag, 40 km long, at a cost of LE 143 million and the agricultural road Beni Sweif / Al Minya, 12 km long, at a cost of LE 49 million. Improvement of the performance of the first sector of Aswan / Abu Simbel road, 50 km long, at a cost of LE 77.5 million.

o  The implementation of the last stage of transformation of Cairo / Alexandria desert road, 30 km long, at a cost of LE 1.8 billion.

B - Decks:

The development and expansion of the network bridges are one of the most important projects supported by the State in order to contribute to the flow of traffic and to the connection between roads and governorates. The road network includes 34 bridges over the Nile, 125 bridges on highways and at intersections with railway lines, and 860 bridges over waterways. The year 2013/2014 has witnessed the realization of the following achievements:

§  The inauguration of three swing bridges on 29/10/2013, established by the Egyptian armed forces, namely  :

§  The Hykstep Bridge, 1180 meters long and 12.20 meters wide, serving those coming from Ismailia heading towards the Hykstep and the city of Al Mustaqbal.

§  The Al Mustaqbal bridge, 1158 meters long and 12.20 meters wide, serving those coming from Ismailia heading towards Shorouk City.

§  The International Medical Center Bridge, 1112 meters long and 12.20 meters wide, in the service of those coming from Shorouk City, the Jennifa road and the International Medical Center and heading towards Cairo.

Other achievements:

      The completion and inauguration of the upper deck of the Fuka Matrouh governorate at a cost of LE 89 million to cancel the intersection of the coastal road with the line of railways.

      The completion of the upper deck at Al Kélabeya Luxor governorate at a cost of LE 87 million. This bridge connects the regional road from Luxor to the agricultural road in Upper Egypt and Luxor bridge over the Nile.

      The completion of the project of the axis of Bani Mazar on the Nile at a cost of LE 340 million. It is an integrated axis connecting the roads of Upper Egypt to the east and west of the Nile.

        The establishment of 17 bridges on Cairo / Alexandria desert road and another bridge outside the Smart Village with an implementation rate of 90%. In addition, the Taba / Al Naqb road was restored from Ra's Al Naqb to the town of Taba and the road network in North Sinai was renovated at an implementation rate of 75% (project started from 30th / 9/2014).


Fourth: Seaports              

Maritime transport in Egypt is one of the important areas that have a huge impact on the economies of the state. The volume of foreign trade transported by sea represents about 90%. Egypt has 42 seaports, including 15 major commercial ports and 27 specific ports. During 2014, the following achievements have been made:  

1- The evolution and inauguration of the port of Hurghada in December 2014 with a cost of LE 170 million. Work include the creation of a new passenger terminal with an assimilative capacity of 700 thousand passengers / year, the development of marine wharf to reach a length of 345 meters, the creation of a shopping center, a new administrative building and the development of infrastructure and services.

2- The evolution and the inauguration of the port of Noweiba'a at a cost of LE 280 million. The harbor works include the creation of a new passenger terminal with an assimilative capacity of 1.7 million passengers / year, and a parking for trucks.

3- The completion of the new docks dedicated to the goods at the port of Damietta, 421 meters long and 12 meters deep, at a cost of LE 142 million. These platforms contribute to the reduction of waiting times of ships out of the port and allow the movement of goods whose weight is 2.5 million tons / year.

4- Restarting the seaport between Egypt and Saudi Arabia (which links the Port Tawfik, Suez governorate with that of Daba in Saudi Arabia) after an 8-year stopover. This port is a major transmission line to pilgrims and goods.

5- The construction of a complex of buildings to investors in the port of Damietta (4 floors) on an area of 1200 meters and at a cost of LE 9 million.

6- The construction and operation of Al Sallam 2 at the port of East Port Said at a cost of LE 55 million


Fifth: River Transport: 

River transport sector is facing several challenges that impede the ability to draw the extreme profit. Its contributions to the movement of freight transportation in Egypt do not exceed 0.5%, or the equivalent of 600 million tons / year. There are currently 67 bridges, 13 locks and 48 ports on the Nile that require rehabilitation to facilitate navigation in the river.  And in an attempt to develop the inland waterway transport sector, the year 2014 has witnessed the following achievements:

1-                 The opening of the navigable lock, small and large, at the Alexandria port at a cost of LE 50 million to maximize the role of IWT in the transport of goods, increase the transport rate from 100 to 1000 tons / day and to reduce the crossing times of the river units from 45 to 15 minutes.

2-                 The implementation of periodic maintenance and cleaning projects of waterways to facilitate the movement of transportation throughout the year and to ensure the continuity of the Nile cruises between Cairo and Aswan.

3-                 The implementation of the periodic maintenance of navigation locks, the most recent is the one located on the Al Nubaria channel 28.5 km long, at a cost of LE 3.35 million.

4-                 The development and improvement of the performance of the waterway Aswan / Wadi Halfa at a cost of LE 4 million.


Sixth: Terrestrial and Dry Ports:

Egypt has six land ports, namely: Salloum port created in 1998; Awja port was constructed in 1998 and dedicated to the transportation of goods; the port of Ras Hadraba in the Red Sea Governorate on the Egyptian border with Sudan; the Rafah Port was renovated in 2005 and dedicated to the transport of individuals and the movement of humanitarian aid; the Taba Port and finally the Qastal rossing linking Egypt and Sudan was inaugurated on August 26, 2014 at a cost of LE 76 million and built over an area of 45,000 m2.  This passage is a new market to support bilateral trade between Egypt, Sudan and African countries. Arqine Port, linking Egypt and Sudan is expected to be inaugurated in 2015.

Logistics centers and dry ports are recent promising and very important activities in the system of globalization. They practice all the activities of seaports, impose the same tariffs and are considered the ultimate point of arrival of goods in transit.

There is an integrated map to create 7 logistics centers in Damietta, Beni Suef, Sohag, Sadat, al Asher-min- Ramadan, 6th of October and Borg El Arab in Alexandria.


Air Transport:

Egypt is a pioneering country in the field of air transport in the Arab region and the Middle East. The first airline was founded in Egypt on May 7, 1932 by the company Egyptair. Today, the Egyptian air lines extend worldwide. The creation of the first Egyptian airport "The Almaza airport" actually began in 1930 and was inaugurated on June 2, 1932. Cairo International Airport was opened in 1963 with a capacity of five million passengers / year against a current capacity of up to 30.5 million passengers / year. Egypt has about 23 airports  and airlines reach 72 cities and capitals of the world, in addition to 12 Egyptian cities.

Number of aircrafts belonging to Egyptair is 75, according to the 2014 statistics, in addition to more than six leased aircrafts. 

The Inauguration of the New Hurghada Airport:

On 17 December 2014, President Abdel Fattah Al Sissi inaugurated the new airport of Hurghada that will enhance the absorption capacity of 13 million passengers / year against the current 5 million passengers/year.This is one of the major projects being implemented by the Department of Civil Aviation under an estimated investment cost of LE 2.4 billion.

This airport is an artistic and architectural masterpiece that corresponds the most modern international airports as regards its capabilities and services that ensure the comfort and well-being to the passenger. The new building is constructed on an area of 93,000 m 2; including a departure lounge on an area of 30,060 m 2, an arrival hall over an area of 25,880 m 2 and a service area on an area of 32,988 m 2.

Other projects planned in 2015:

The new passengers building at Sharm El Sheikh International Airport which will increase the absorptive capacity to 18 million passengers / year.

v The completion and inauguration of the passenger building # 2 at the Cairo international airport before the end of 2015 with an assimilative capacity of 7.5 million passengers / year.

A new passenger building in Borg Al Arab Airport will be established in 2015, the first ecological airport depending on solar energy and has an assimilation capacity estimated by 4 million passengers.

Among the giant projects is that of the "Airport City" which will include many commercial, industrial, logistics and entertainment activities in addition to the embarkation of goods, within the framework of the transformation of the Cairo International Airport to a pivotal one, along with linking the new project "Airport City" with the Suez Canal National project and the port of El Sokhna.The project, whose investments reach about LE 80 billion, provides youth with thousands of job opportunities.






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