23 July 2024 04:09 AM

Egypt and Human Rights

Thursday، 03 February 2022 01:14 PM

Human rights meaning

Human rights defined as the rights acquired by every human being on the face of the earth without prejudice or discrimination, regardless of his race, nationality, gender, language, or religion, Thus, every individual in the world has the right to enjoy his rights without any prejudice to them, in a way that guarantees him a life in dignity and equality.

Human rights are represented in many areas, first of this is freedom, such as freedom of belief, freedom of opinion and expression, and protection from slavery and torture, right to life, right to work and learn, and right to protection and preservation of the social status represented in obtaining the benefits of individuals.

Human rights are considered universal and inalienable rights. This principle is the cornerstone of international human rights law, which is first appeared in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948; as all countries have agreed to at least one of the major human rights treaties contained therein, and about 80% of countries have agreed to 4 or more treaties.

Egypt's role within the international human rights

For decades, Egypt has contributed to efforts of developing international human rights law, through its participation in the drafting of the Universal Declaration and the two International Covenants on Human Rights, and in consultations and preparations for the drafting of international human rights conventions.

Egypt has acceded to eight basic international human rights conventions, and has participated in efforts to develop international human rights mechanisms at the United Nations, including the Human Rights Council, which it joined as a member of several times, in addition to electing many Egyptian experts to the membership of human rights treaty bodies.

At the regional level, Egypt joined a number of conventions within the framework of the Arab and African human rights systems.

Egypt plays an active and effective role in the framework of joint international action in the field of human rights, and it coordinates with Arab, African and Islamic countries and the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement in addressing issues of interest to developing countries on the international human rights agenda, including racism and xenophobia, and the challenges facing it.

Egypt Mechanisms to protect human rights

Since the last century, the United Nations has established the rules for the protection of human rights.

The UN Charter included a number of texts on human rights; also, “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948” included the rights and freedoms of individuals, which was supported by 48 countries, including Egypt.

In addition to “The two International Covenants on Human Rights of 1966”: “the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights”.

Egypt has made efforts to preserve human rights, acceded to many international and regional conventions related to human rights, and had an effective role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in addition to its continuous participation in the development of international human rights law.

Accordingly, Egypt's accession to the membership of the United Nations Human Rights Council and its election as Vice-President of the Council came in appreciation of its regional and international standing and the role and efforts it exerts within the Council and in various international forums concerned with human rights.

In the context of ensuring the promotion and protection of human rights, the state has established national mechanisms that work to enforce human rights principles and standards, including:

First: Egyptian constitutions

Egypt has taken effective steps to preserve human rights through the establishment of successive constitutions, starting with “1923 constitution”, passing through “1956 constitution”, then “1958 constitution of the United Arab Republic”, after the union between Egypt and Syria, “1971 constitution”, and ending with the 2014 constitution.

These constitutions included articles that preserve human rights in accordance with international and regional conventions on human rights.

1971 constitution

The document declaring the permanent constitution of Egypt 1971 reflected the national vision of Egypt and its appreciation for human rights

In this regard, Article 57 stated: “Any encroachment upon individual freedom or the inviolability of private life of citizens and any other public rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be considered a crime, for which criminal and civil lawsuit shall not be forfeited by prescription. The State shall grant a fair compensation to the victim of such encroachment”.

2014 Constitution

The 2014 constitution provided legal guarantees to enhance the respect and protection of human rights.

Article 53 stipulates that: “All citizens are equal before the Law. They are equal in rights, freedoms and general duties, without discrimination based on religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographic affiliation or any other reason”.

Second: International and regional human rights treaties to which Egypt has acceded:

International agreements

There are many international agreements to which Egypt has acceded, whether preceding or following the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, such as:

Forced Labour Convention, 1930, 1957 (ILO Conventions Nos. 29 and 105).

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid .1966

The UNHCR 1951 Refugee Convention.

The 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees is an international treaty.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (1967).

The Convention on the Political Rights of Women (1953).

The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990).

International Convention against Apartheid in Sports (1985).

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (1990).

Regional agreements

OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa 1969.

The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 1980.

Arab Charter on the Rights of the Child 1983.

The African Charter on the rights and welfare of the child (ACRW) 1990.

Third: Means of achieving national justice

The judiciary extended the judicial protection of the rights and freedoms of Egyptians, including the right to life, belief, expression, private property, and recourse to the judiciary.

The state has established effective means and mechanisms to achieve justice for individuals, which represented in:

Penal Code, which defines the punitive provisions for criminal acts under international human rights covenants, and defines the penalties that can be imposed on those who are proven to have committed them.

The Public Prosecution, which is an important branch of the judicial authority, and is responsible for investigation and prosecution in criminal cases.

The Supreme Constitutional Court, which added constitutional judicial protection to the principles of human rights stipulated in the Constitution, and established the meanings and concepts contained in international human rights covenants.

The Court of Cassation, The Court of Cassation played an important role in establishing the main principles of human rights and public freedoms, and this was reflected in the rulings of the ordinary judiciary and also the courts of the State Council, each within its jurisdiction.

Fourth: National mechanisms working in human rights

Egypt has made extensive efforts to disseminate and respect human rights, and for this purpose, the state has established many national mechanisms, namely:

The National Council for Childhood & Motherhood.

The National Council for Women.

Department of Human Rights Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The Human Rights Committee of the Ministry of Social Affairs.

Fifth: The National Council for Human Rights

Egypt issued Law No. 94 of 2003 to establish the National Council for Human Rights, which aims to promote and develop human rights, resolve complaints related to them, and participate in proposals and recommendations in matters related to human rights at the national and international levels.

Reconstituting the National Council for Human Rights (NCHR)

On December, 29, 2021, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi has issued Decree No. 616 of 2021 reconstituting the National Council for Human Rights (NCHR) for the next four years.

Under the decree, Ambassador Moushira Khattab shall chair the National Council for Human Rights, and Ambassador Mahmoud Karem Mahmoud will serve as deputy chairperson.

Some of the council's members are Mohamed Anas Qassem Youssef Gaafar, George Isaac, Mohamed Sameh Amr Bandar, Hoda Ragheb Awad, Nevine Mosaad, Noha Ali Bakr, Abdel Gawad Ahmed Abdel Hamid, Rabha Fathi Shafiq, Nehad Abul Qumsan, and Hany Ibrahim Fahmy.

Sixth: Egyptian participation in international human rights activities

International Day for Tolerance

Egypt is always keen on November 16 of each year to celebrate the International Day for Tolerance, which the United Nations General Assembly calls on member states to celebrate With the aim of achieving peace and providing a decent life for people in different cultures and religions.

A decent life initiative

“Decent life initiative” aims to make the Egyptian citizen feel an improvement in the standard of living, and the first phase of it.

The Initiative aims at improving the living conditions and daily life of Egyptian citizens, within a framework of integration and unity of efforts among the state institutions, private sector entities, civil society and development partners in Egypt.

 Egypt and the human rights file

Elderly Rights Bill - November 21, 2021

The law included the right of the elderly to obtain monthly assistance in case he did not receive an insurance pension.

The draft law aimed to guarantee the rights of the elderly in health, economics, culture, society and entertainment, and to provide them with an appropriate pension that guarantees them a decent life, in addition to enabling them to participate in the public life. The law also disseminates electronic culture mechanisms in centers for the elderly to enable them culturally to create self-education by the most convenient means, as well as providing the Public Authority for Adult Education the opportunity for the elderly to continue their education in the university, preparatory, and secondary levels.

Project goals

Consideration of the needs of the elderly in state’s planning of public utilities, and working to encourage civil society organizations to participate in caring for the elderly.

Granting a guarantee pension for the elderly from the age of sixty-five or for those who suffer from a disability or a chronic disease who have no income and do not receive an insurance pension.

Establishing care homes for the elderly, opening day care clubs for them, and launching a written document on the rights of the elderly in cooperation with civil society organizations.

Expanding the social protection programs granted to the elderly, increasing the financial allocations available to governmental social care institutions, strengthening inspection on it, and enhancing the elderly’s access to appropriate health care.

Empowering the elderly to participate in public life, enhancing their participation in formulating their own policies, organizing an annual community dialogue aimed at identifying gaps, areas of interest, and appropriate means of interaction with issues, and enhancing their access to and promotion of cultural opportunities, and promoting Legal assistance for the elderly, facilitating their access to means of litigation, and encouraging the expansion of the establishment of care homes for the elderly.

The draft law provides integrated rights for the elderly from health care, facilitates the payment of pensions, and provides a companion for the elderly in his home.

Partial exemption from transportation and other tickets and the right to psychological care and rehabilitation for the elderly.

Establishing a fund in the Ministry of Social Solidarity called “The Elderly Care Fund”, which will have a public legal personality, and it will be affiliated with the competent ministry, and it will be under the supervision of the Prime Minister, and the fund’s board of directors may establish other branches for it in the governorates.

National Plan for Childhood and Motherhood - November 21, 2021

The Strategic Framework for Childhood and Motherhood and the National Plan for Childhood and Motherhood (2018-2030) achieve an integrated vision to advance the conditions of childhood and motherhood and achieve the best interests of the child within the framework of Egypt’s vision 2020-2030, and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the Child Law, and international and regional agreements ratified by Egypt.

Egypt witnessed many legislative developments last year to promote children’s rights, including: the State Prize for the Young Creator Law, legislative amendments to the Penal Code to counter bullying, toughening penalties to counter crimes of female genital mutilation (FGM), as well as the establishment of a Child Protection Office in Judicial Inspection Department of the Attorney General's Office.

The Ministry of Social Solidarity also launched the “National Strategy for the Alternative Care of Children and Youth” (2021-2030), which aims to provide the best alternative care for children and youth and improve the quality of life for them, in addition to the objectives set out in the “National Human Rights Strategy” to support children’s rights.

 People of determination Rights

President El-Sisi assigned to provide more support and care for people with special needs, the president always reviews efforts to strengthen the care system for people with special needs and the steps to issue an integrated service card for them, as well as the ministry's activities to care, empower and integrate people with special needs.

At the forefront of these initiatives is the humanitarian initiative launched by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi declaring 2018 the year of people with disabilities, and the subsequent governmental and popular initiatives to support this group and fully integrate them into society.

The government has introduced the "integrated services card", which is cards that benefit 13 million people with disabilities, to obtain their rights in law, including health insurance, pension and job opportunities.

 The first batch of 500,000 cards was issued to people who underwent a mechanized medical examination that proves the disability and determines its type and degree.

In early 2019, Law No. 11 of 2019 was issued regarding the National Council for Persons with Disabilities, which granted the National Council technical, financial and administrative independence, and the right to inform public authorities of any violation that occurred and related to its field of work.

A charitable investment fund was established with a capital of one billion pounds, under the name “Ataa” Fund to Support People with Disabilities.

The government has announced in November 2019, the opening of the community contribution to it, with the aim of providing financial support to people with special needs to purchase prosthetic devices and their supplies.

The government has funded 150 projects to develop mobile and computer technology and assistive programs for people with disabilities, and to provide informational availability on official websites by making these websites readable using the visually impaired speaking program.


The Ministry of Education has established new classes to accommodate all people of determination, in the various educational stages.

In the university stage, the Supreme Council of Universities issued a decision to accept students with hearing disabilities in Egyptian universities.

The Ministry of Social Solidarity has provided social rehabilitation offices for people with disabilities, and one of the most important services it provides is the provision of prosthetic devices, whether prosthetics, wheelchairs or crutches, and training them in appropriate professions by enrolling persons with disabilities in comprehensive rehabilitation centers or training centers close to their places of residence.

Human Rights Council simulation model at the Fourth World Youth Forum- January, 11st, 2022

The fourth edition of the World Youth Forum (10-13 January 2022) witnessed a simulation model of the United Nations Human Rights Council, in the presence of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and a number of officials, with the participation of 115 young people representing 47 countries.

Five thousand young men and women had submitted to participate in the form during the registration for the forum, and a number of them were selected representing the countries of the world.

The session started its work by emphasizing that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 was born out of the Second World War, and it was a common framework for humanity.

President of the session announced his condolences on the death of the President of the European Parliament, and announced the title of the special session presented by the African Group and with the support of more than two thirds of the Council's members and a group of observer countries.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights highlighted the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the cooperation process and stressed that developing countries are more affected by the pandemic.

The High Commissioner stressed that national efforts must limit the impact of the pandemic on vulnerable groups such as women, children, refugees and the elderly, in addition to the need to protect health workers . 

President of the Human Rights Council gave the floor to representatives of groups within the Council, who pointed out the diversity of procedures after the pandemic, as well as discrimination in the distribution of vaccines, and the injustice that Africa has been subjected to in accessing vaccines.

Egypt’s speech clarified the application of the equation of preserving health, walking the path of development and employment, while the words of India, Jordan, Albania, the Philippines, Croatia, Japan and Mongolia called for the distribution of vaccines based on the number of people, not building on nationality.

In an intervention by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, he highlighted human rights in an integrated manner, praised the organization of human rights simulation, and focused on the comparison between victims of devastation in the surrounding countries and victims of human rights.

The Cabinet approves extending the period for reconciliation the status of Civil Society Organization for another year-  January, 22nd ,2022

The Egyptian Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister Dr. Mostafa Madbouly, in its meeting on Wednesday 19 January, approved a bill to amend some of the provisions of the “Law

Governing Civil Society Organizations in Egypt" no. 149 of 2019 to extend the deadline for reconciling the status of CSOs for another year starting from the date of expiry of the period contained in Article-2 of the NGO Law January 11, 2022, to expire on January 11, 2023, which coincides with the Egyptian President announcement that the year 2022 is the Egyptian Civil Society Year.

Civil society in Egypt is witnessing a remarkable space openness with unprecedented support under the leadership of the Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, that is reflected his trust in the capacity of civil society to contribute to achieving sustainable and equitable development in Egypt, and that was revealed in his decision to issue the Law no. 149/2019 and its executive regulations issued in January 2021, and in the promotion of civil, social and economic rights in the National Human Rights Strategy launched in September 2021.

The aim of the extending the period of reconciling the status of NGOs is to provide an additional period of time for all NGOs in Egypt to register and reconcile their situation, especially that Covid-19 precautionary measures adopted by the state have prevented some NGOs from holding General Assembly meetings to approve the executive regulations, as part of the registration procedures, in addition that electronic portal that was lately developed might require a longer time for some organizations to comprehend all the procedures that must be fulfilled.

President Sisi pardons some inmates on occasion of Police Day

Celebrating the Police Day and the January 25 Revolution, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi issued a presidential decree to pardon some prisoners.

This comes within the framework of implementing the concept of human rights and a reflection of the Egyptian national strategy for human rights.

National Human Rights Strategy Launching

In September 2021, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi launched the first national strategy for human rights, which aims to promote social, economic, political and cultural rights within the country.

President Sisi said that the launch of the strategy is a bright spot in Egypt’s history, considering it a serious step towards the advancement of human rights in Egypt.

The national strategy represents a major step forward, as it includes a specific program and a plan for 5 years from 2021 to 2026.

It includes 4 main axes: civil and political rights, economic, social and cultural rights, and the rights of women, children, people with disabilities, youth and the elderly, education and capacity building in human rights.

2022 Year of civil society

President Sisi declared 2022 a "year of civil society", calling for continuing to work side by side with the Egyptian state institutions, to achieve sustainable development in all fields, and to spread awareness of the culture of human rights, contributing to realizing the hopes and aspirations of the Egyptian people.

Egyptian National Strategy for Human Rights implications

Egypt has been working on developing a charter for the human rights strategy in its comprehensive sense, as there is no personal and political freedom without social and educational development, freedom of belief, and educating peoples with the concepts of “human rights” and “national security.

President Sisi denies human rights violations in Egypt

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi denied human rights violations in Egypt, and said in a telephone interview with the “Ninth” program on Egyptian television, on 15th September 2021, that “Egyptians must be reassured that there is no violation of human rights in their country”.

Mr president announced that the largest prison complex in Egypt would be opened within a few weeks, sayin: "The prisoner in the complex will serve his sentence in a humane manner... movement, subsistence, health care, humanitarian, cultural and reform care."

President El-Sisi to UN: Egypt is keen on promoting human rights

President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi said that Egypt is keen to enhance human rights of its citizens and is making unremitting efforts to achieve this in a framework of respect for the principles of citizenship and the rule of law.

This came during President El-Sisi’s speech before the United Nations General Assembly on September 21, 2021, and the President added that Egypt is fully aware that the Egyptian person comes at the heart of the comprehensive development system, which it is keen to implement in order to uphold his dignity and to guarantee his rights and freedoms.

Sisi cancels extension of emergency state

President Abdel Fatah El Sisi cancelled on Monday October,25, 2021 the extension of the state of emergency in Egypt for the first time in years.

Posting on his official page on social media, President Sisi said "Egypt has become an oasis of security and stability in the region, thanks to its great people and loyal men. So, I have decided, for the first time in years, not to extend the state of emergency nationwide."

He went on to say: "In fact, this decision was made by the Egyptian people over the past years through their honest and great participation in all development efforts."

"As I announce this decision, I remember with all due respect and appreciation our heroic martyrs, without whom we could not have achieved stability and security," President Sisi stressed.

Rehabilitation Centers

First: Wadi El-Natron Rehabilitation Center

The Ministry of Interior opened “Rehabilitation Center” on October 28, 2021, in the presence of a number of diplomatic missions and international organizations, representatives of human rights councils and human rights committees in the House and Senate, and a number of media professionals and correspondents of foreign agencies.

The establishment of rehabilitation centers came with specifications that are in line with the Egyptian state’s strategy in human rights to provide all means of good life for detention to reform them.

Wadi El-Natron Rehabilitation Center was built in a period not exceeding 10 months, and after the actual operation of this center, 12 prisons will be closed, representing 25% of the total number of public prisons in Egypt.

The center was designed in a scientific manner and advanced technology, during which the latest electronic means were used.

In the stages of construction and preparation, and the adoption of reform and rehabilitation programs, the latest studies in which specialists in all fields participated in dealing with detainees and rehabilitating was used, to enable them to positively integrate into society after serving their sentence.

How the center is divided

detention area

The center is an integrated center with six sub-centers designed in a circular shape to provide 24/7 renewable ventilation and natural lighting to inmates.

Each sub-center has civilized and humanitarian inmates ward equipped with screens that display cultural, sports, entertainment, and rehabilitation programs to reform the intellectual and behavioral course.

There is also religious rites that enable the inmates to perform worship and teach them the forgiving, principles of religions, and also places for people with special needs, rehabilitation workshops, and dining halls.

Rehabilitation and production area

The rehabilitation and production area also includes the areas of “open crops - greenhouses - livestock and poultry - factories and production workshops.” The outer area of ​​the center contains outlets for selling products, and the center products are sold in exhibitions organized by the community protection sector of the Ministry of Interior, where the return is allocated for the detention and directing this return according to his desire, either transferring the return or part of it to his family or keeping it after serving the penalty.

Central Hospital

The new center is prepared with a central hospital to treat inmates with the help of proficient doctors, consultants, and well-trained medical staff.

The hospital is equipped with the most recent equipment and technologies with a capacity of 300 beds and 4 operation rooms, including all specialties.

It also includes 28 intensive care beds and isolation and emergency rooms.

There is a central pharmacy, department of laboratories, radiology, blood bank, a hemodialysis unit with 16 latest in the world machines and four nurseries.

There are also specialized equipped clinics at the highest level.

Court complex

The Reform and Rehabilitation Center in Wadi al-Natrun also includes a court complex, which was established to achieve the highest levels of security.

It includes 8 administratively separate courtrooms with a total capacity of 800 people so that public sessions are held to try inmates there and achieve a safe environment for a fair trial in which the inmate enjoys all his rights, and saves the trouble of moving to the courts.

Ministry of the Interior strategy in the management of penal institutions

The strategy of Ministry of Interior in managing penal and correctional institutions is based on the axes of the modern punitive philosophy, which is based on transforming traditional places of detention into exemplary places for the rehabilitation of inmates, which is a realistic translation of the recently launched National Human Rights Strategy.

Improving detainees’ conditions

The international community is currently paying special attention to improving the conditions of detainees as one of the important aspects of human rights, and the Ministry of Interior has developed a strategy for the construction of these centers outside the population mass as an alternative to the current public prisons.

Its first steps began with the establishment of the Rehabilitation Center in Wadi al-Natrun, which, after its full operation, will close 12 prisons, representing 25% of the total number of public prisons in Egypt: “Cairo Resumption, Liman Tora, Cairo Tora, Banha, Alexandria, public Tanta, Mansoura, Shebin El-Kom, Zagazig, Old Damanhour, Beheira labor camp, public Minya”.

Rehabilitation of inmates

The Ministry of Interior concluded a cooperation protocol with the Ministry of Education and Technical Education to operate the two secondary schools "industrial and agricultural", which were opened in the center, coordination was also made with the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities to prepare places for training and rehabilitation on various technical professions.

Within the framework of achieving this goal, the Ministry of Interior established a number of industrial, agricultural and animal production projects within the center to achieve self-sufficiency in its needs of some basic products as well as contribute to meeting the needs of citizens at reduced prices in light of the solidarity role of the Ministry of Interior.

International praise for the Rehabilitation Center

United Nations Office on Crime and Drugs

Cristina Albertin, UNODC Regional Representative said that she had the opportunity to visit Rehabilitation Center in Wadi El-Natrun, and that this center would replace the old prisons, and adopt a new and modern approach to respecting human rights by providing the necessary services to its inmates, including health services, provided by the hospital, which is equipped with the latest medical equipment and devices, operating rooms that include all specialties, and rooms for intensive care.

She also praised the treatment of prisoners, which was included in the National Human Rights Strategy launched by President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi this year.

Arab Parliament

The Speaker of the Arab Parliament, Adel bin Abdul Rahman Al-Assomy, praised the inauguration of Rehabilitation Center in Wadi El-Natrun, stressing that it embodies the Egyptian state’s approach to implementing the highest international human rights standards.

Al-Asoumi also praised the strong political will of President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi, and his insistence that the Egyptian state be among the advanced and pioneering countries in the field of human rights, which is clearly embodied in many successive steps, the most prominent of which was the launch of the first national strategy for human rights, and the abolition of the extension of the state of emergency, expanding the amnesty base and releasing inmates, and opening rehabilitation centers according to the latest international standards.

Second: "Badr" Rehabilitation Center

On December 30, 2021, the Ministry of Interior inaugurated the “Badr Reform and Rehabilitation Center”, which is one of the largest and most modern rehabilitation centers for prison inmates in the Middle East, to provide the best care for inmates at all levels.

The center includes 3 sub-centers, and it was built according to the finest architectural systems, using modern technology, and was equipped with all modern medical devices that keep pace with the times, to provide social and health care for all inmates.

The center was also designed in an advanced scientific and technological manner, during which the latest technological means were used.

The center includes a medical center equipped with the latest medical equipment and devices, in addition to clinics, and For the first time, a women's health center has been developed that includes the latest diagnostic devices.

It also includes the court complex inside, which was created to achieve maximum levels of security, includes 4 courtrooms for court sessions that are administratively separate so that public hearings are held for the inmates.

The state, represented by the Ministry of Interior, is keen to create a record for each inmate that includes a comprehensive research on his social and psychological condition, taking into account maintaining the strict confidentiality of such research within the framework of protecting the confidentiality of data, with the assistance of psychologists and sociologists.

The state also pays special attention to empowering and protecting the inmate woman through many rehabilitation programs and various aspects of care that extend to her close care of her infant until reaching the age of two years and providing the appropriate climate and places to receive her children during visits in order not to negatively affect these children from a psychological point of view.

The disabled inmates of the rehabilitation centers also had a large share of aspects of care through the provision of means of accessibility in the facilities of the centers and drawing up plans for treatment, and guidance in proportion to their health and physical condition.

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